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Home >> Consumer/ Patient Info >> Conditions/ Procedures >> Knee Joint

Conditions/ Procedures

Hips :: Knees :: Sports Medicine

Knee Joint

The knee joint, which appears like a simple hinge-joint, is one of the most complex joint. Moreover, the knee is more likely to be injured than is any other joint in the body.

Knee joint must be regarded as consisting of three articulations in one: two condyloid joints, one between each condyle of the femur and the corresponding meniscus and condyle of the tibia; and a third between the patella and the femur, partly arthrodial, but not completely so, since the articular surfaces are not mutually adapted to each other, so that the movement is not a simple gliding one.

To understand the functions, conditions, surgeries & procedures of the knee better, we have included an interactive animated presentation.

Click on the topics below to go the desired section

Knee anatomy :: Knee arthritis
Knee Arthroscopy :: Total Knee Replacement :: ACL Reconstruction
Unicondylar Knee Replacement (UKR) :: Revision Knee Replacement

Normal anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.

Knee Anatomy

Arthritis of the Knee joint

The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint, but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage.

Click here to go to the section on arthritis.

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Arthroscopy of the knee joint.

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy

Knee Arthroscopy
Interactive Movie
Text version
Patient Info handout

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Total Knee Replacement (TKR).

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses'.

Find out more about Total Knee Replacement with the following links.

Total Knee Replacement

Total knee replacement

Interactive Movie
Text version
Patient Info handout

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ACL reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn't heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring tendon.

ACL reconstruction - Hamstring tendon

Interactive Movie
Text version
Patient Info handout

ACL Reconstruction Patellar tendon

ACL reconstruction - Patella tedon

Interactive Movie
Text version
Patient Info handout

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Uni condylar knee replacement.

This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.

Find out more about Unicondylar Knee Replacement with the following links.

Unicondylar knee replacement

Interactive Movie
Text version
Patient Info handout

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Revision knee replacement.

This means that part or all of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from very minor adjustments to massive operations replacing significant amounts of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

Find out more about Revision Knee Replacement with the following links.

Revision knee replacement

Interactive Movie
Text version
Patient Info handout


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